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Chapter IX: The General Structure and Composition of Planets and the Creation of their Magnetic Fields

Within our Solar System, the four inner planets have a solid surface, and are referred to as terrestrial planets. These planets display no planetary rings and few satellites. In contrast, the surfaces of the four outer planets are non-solid and composed of gases.1 Gas planets are substantially more massive than terrestrial planets, and display broad rings and extensive satellite systems. The distinct differences in mass and radii between the terrestrial and gas planets raise questions as to whether their composition and structure are related to their size. A UG-based analysis will be applied to examine the relationship between the mass of planets and their resultant properties. It will be shown that under unified gravitation, the formation of a substantial ring and satellite system requires a planet of sufficient mass, and is mutually exclusive to having a solid surface.

Section IX-1: Planetary Ring
and Satellite Systems of Terrestrial and Gas Planets

The temperature and pressure within the cores of less massive planets are less extreme, and are consequently expected to produce less massive superheavy particles. The maximal zonal oscillation ranges of the four terrestrial planets in the Solar System are thus expected to extend to shorter distances than the maximal zonal oscillation ranges of the four massive gas planets.

A mathematical formula relating the mass of the dominant SHP of a planet to the total planetary mass is unknown. In the present case, it is assumed that the mass of the dominant SHP increases faster than the rate of growth of the radius of the planet , which is roughly proportional to .

A common spherical macroscopic object with a radius of the order of a few centimeters is too small to produce superheavy particles of a mass substantially larger than . As the zonal oscillation range of two ordinary particles of mass is of the order of , the maximal zonal range of the object is negligible relative to its radius. The mass of a homogeneous object is proportional to the cube of its radius. The assumption made here, that on average the mass of the dominant SHP type of an object increases faster than the cube root of its mass, implies that the mass of the dominant SHP type increases faster than the radius of the object. Therefore, beyond a certain radial value, the object’s maximal zonal oscillation range, which is proportional to , is expected to exceed its radius. In such a case, some of the potential energy minima of ordinary matter of mass may occur above the surface of the object, creating areas of higher matter density, or rings. In order for the length of the zonal oscillation range of the dominant superheavy particles with ordinary matter to equal the radius of the object, the object’s mass is expected to fall within the range between the mass of the largest known object without a ring system and the smallest object known to display a ring system. Hence, in our Solar System this mass value is expected to fall somewhere between the mass of the planet Earth and the mass of planet Uranus.

As an example, assume that within the range of masses covered by the eight Solar planets between(see table 9.1), has an approximately linear dependency on the planet’s overall mass (or ). For simplicity, the SHP velocities are assumed to be non-relativistic and the influence of less dominant SHP groups will not be taken into account. Applying the above simplifications, the radius of the planet can be expressed by , where is defined as the average density of the planet. The external ring, indexed ,2 is given by . Therefore, rings may form when , or

Equation 9-1-1


Equation 9-1-2

Table 9-1 provides the calculated values of for all of the planets in the Solar System.

Given that the four terrestrial planets do not display planetary rings, while the four gas giants maintain rings, the value of lies somewhere within the range

Equation 9-1-3

Note, however, that the assumption of linearity was used only as an example. In the case where the relation between and is non-linear, as long as increases consistently at a higher rate than , ring systems will occur exclusively in objects of a mass greater than some threshold mass value. Taking the above discussion one step further, when the zonal oscillations of the planetary superheavy particles with ordinary matter extend beyond the Roche limit of a planet, the rings located external to this limit are likely to coalesce to produce satellites. As discussed, this process can occur in planets of substantial mass, where the oscillation range of the SHP- interaction exceeds the radii of the planets. This process may consequently account for the large number of satellites observed to encircle the four gas giants, and may further explain why terrestrial planets, which do not generate ring systems at which matter can accumulate and coalesce, have few satellites. According to unified gravitation, the moons of terrestrial planets are theorized to have been captured into orbit by the gravitational pull of their parent planet. These captured satellites may have originated external to the planetary system, or may have formed in tandem with their parent planet, in an adjacent orbit. In keeping with this scenario, Earth and its moon may have formed within virtually the same ring of the Sun, at two local minima generated by the “interference pattern” of various solar SHP groups.3 As their masses increased, the gravitational interaction between the Earth and the moon became sufficiently strong and they began to orbit around each other, as well as around the Sun. Such a scenario may provide one or two satellites, however not the large quantity of satellites observed to orbit the giant gas planets.

Table 9-1

 Planet Density ()  Mass ()  
 Jupiter  1,326  
 Saturn  687.3  
 Uranus  1,270  
Neptune  1,638  
 Earth  5,515  
 Mars  3,934  
 Venus  5,204  
 Mercury  5,427  

Section IX-2: Unified Gravitation
and the Surface Structure of Gas and Terrestrial Planets

The UG explanation for the composition of planets, specifically the observation that the larger solar planets consist of non-solid surfaces, can be examined in the context of the discussion of the previous section. The existence of a ring system indicates that the zonal oscillation range generated by the planetary superheavy particles exceeds the radius of the planet. Therefore, the rapid oscillations of the potential energy create strong tidal forces that extend beyond the planetary surface and prevent surface layers of gases from transitioning to solid form. In smaller planets, the zonal oscillation range of the dominant superheavy particles is expected to terminate well below the planetary surface. Hence, the tidal forces applied on a planet’s surface by its superheavy particles are small, allowing ordinary matter on the planetary surface to solidify.

Section IX-3: The Composition of Earth
’s Core

As suggested in the third chapter, superheavy particles are generated deep within the cores of astronomical objects (probably as pairs of superheavy particles and anti-particles) with sufficient initial kinetic energy and momentum to allow for their ejection from the central core, yet not adequately large to set them free. Consequently, SHPs enter into approximately circular orbits of radii around the central core, where the zonal oscillation range of the superheavy particles is given by . Ordinary matter is likely to coalesce in regions external to the zonal oscillation range of massive superheavy particles. Consequently, as long as and , the inner core and the outer layers of the planet do not fall within the zonal oscillation range of large SHPs and are thus expected to solidify.4 The middle section of the planet, between , is located within the zonal oscillation range of large SHPs, and is thus expected to remain non-solid or viscous. Looking into the composition of our planet, the radius of Earth’s solid inner core is and the radius of its outer liquid core lies between and from the planetary center. Above the liquid layers of the core lies the highly viscous mantle between and from the center of Earth,5 and an additional of a solid outer crust. Using these values, the mass and orbital radii of the Earth’s dominant superheavy particles can be estimated, where

and provide and , leading to . Therefore, the mass of the dominant SHP within the Earth is expected to equal approximately . Note that Earth may contain larger superheavy particles as well, but in quantities that are too minor to be noticed. Further note that based on unified gravitation, the outer core is not necessarily in a liquid or gas form. Rather, the outer core is more likely to be composed of layers of high matter density separated by layers of significantly lower density, where the layered structures rotate at lower angular velocities than the SHP groups, and are thus subjected to rotating density waves generated by the SHPs.

Section IX-4: The Creation of Planetary, Stellar and Galactic Magnetic Fields
via Unified Gravitation

The Sun, the Earth and the other solar planets are known to have magnetic fields, a phenomenon described by Einstein as being one of the great unsolved problems facing modern physics. The exact cause for the observed magnetic fields remains unknown. Earth’s magnetic field is presently believed to result from electric currents in its liquid outer core, however the origin of these currents is not well-understood.

As discussed in Chapter VIII, at distances below , free electrons tend to gravitate toward their minima contours at about , while below , protons and ions (as well as neutral atoms, neutrons and molecules) tend to gravitate toward the minima of the ordinary matter , at about . Since , there are 1,836 proton-SHP minima between any two successive electron-SHP minima.

Ionization may be caused by the UG gravitational force (as explained in Chapter VIII), by radiation (electromagnetic fields), or thermally (through collisions or radiation). In any case, if a free electron and an ion are within the electron-SHP zonal oscillation range, each will gravitate toward its nearest respective minimum and enter into an orbit. Each rotating charge is expected to generate a magnetic field of

Equation 9-4-1

The total amount of negative and positive charges must be equal in order to maintain overall neutrality. According to the current paradigm (based on the electromagnetic/Newtonian scenario), the lighter electrons are expected to reach substantially higher velocities than the heavier ions, and the magnetic field generated by the ions is thus negligible. However, both thermal and radiation-driven ionization are random by nature. Substantially high temperatures are required for the generation of the massive ionization needed for the creation of the measured magnetic fields. At such high temperatures, the spatial and velocity distributions of the free electrons are expected to be entirely random. Therefore, the magnetic fields produced by the various electrons should cancel out, and no substantial global magnetic field should be observed.

According to the UG scenario, ions and protons are organized in a distinct set of orbits within the SHP-proton zonal oscillation range, dictated by an orderly set of minima. The same is true for the electrons within the SHP-electron oscillation range.6 The velocities of the nearby electrons and protons (or ions) are determined by the rotational velocity of the central core at very short distances, or may be given by equation 6-5, , at larger distances. In either case, the velocity of the charged particles is independent of their masses. Consequently, in close proximity to the SHP groups, ions and protons travel at velocities that are comparable to the velocities of the electrons and rotate in the same direction within the same orbital plane, as dictated by the rotation of the SHP groups. Since all charges rotate in the same direction, the magnetic fields generated by the rotating positive charges point in a single direction, opposite to the direction of the contribution of the rotating negative charges.7 However, since the positive and negative charges are distributed in different sets of orbits, they are not likely to recombine, and their magnetic fields cannot entirely cancel each other out. As a result, a global planetary, stellar or galactic magnetic field may be generated.

In the specific case of Earth’s magnetic field, the orbits of the dominant SHP groups were estimated in the previous section to reside within Earth’s outer core. As the SHPs rotate around the center of Earth, they ionize nearby atoms and organize the free ions and electrons into separate orbits, therefore creating separate currents of ions and electrons within the outer core. These currents generate Earth’s magnetic field via a dynamo effect, in accordance with current theory.

Section IX-5: The Solar Corona

Located above the Sun’s transition region, the solar corona starts at about above the photosphere and extends out into space without a well-defined outer boundary. The corona’s energy output is nearly of that of the photosphere. However, whereas the average temperature of the Sun’s photosphere is kelvin, the corona’s temperature is between one and three million Kelvin. The higher temperature of the corona rules out simple conduction of heat as its heating mechanism, and the exact process by which the corona is heated is still subject to debate.

A possible UG-driven theory proposes that the solar corona is located at the external minimum layer of a dominant SHP at , while the higher minima of are positioned deep under the surface of the Sun, and are thus undetectable. As a result, a significantly higher density of matter is expected at the vicinity of the dominant SHP- minimum , causing a dramatic elevation in temperature. Consequently, superheavy particles may be generated, and subsequently decay, at this minimum. Prior to their decay, these SHPs create a series of minima at which ordinary matter may concentrate to form the observed c (see figure 9.1).8 The coronal loops may be generated by one or more superheavy particles of the same or of different masses located at varying distances from each other, thereby different loops may demonstrate entirely different structures. As new SHPs are created and then decay, coronal loops are expected to be transient. Figure 9-1 displays an observed coronal loop that appears almost identical in structure to a single lobe of the hourglass nebula MyCn18 discussed in chapter IV (a single lobe, since only the part of the overall structure that is located above the surface of the Sun is visible), suggesting that this particular coronal loop may also be generated by binary superheavy particles located at the minimum.

Figure 9-1: Coronal loops, image credit: TRACE NASA; http://trace.lmsal.com/POD/TRACEpodarchive24.html. In the fourth chapter, the hourglass structure of MyCn 18 was produced using a simple UG model of binary of stationary SHP groups. The resemblance between the structure of the coronal loop in figure 9-1 and a single lobe of MyCn 18 suggest that both structures may be governed by similar interactions.

1 Note that planetary gases may become compressed into liquids or solids further in toward their interiors.

2 As previously discussed, the external ring between the minimum and the maximum demonstrates negligible amplitude and thus can be discounted. Note that this external ring may be observed as an extremely faint and diffused ring.

3 For additional information, see figure 4-2 and footnote 63 in Chapter IV. Current theory holds that the Moon was created by a collision between Earth and an external body.

4 Note that the center of the planet may be sufficiently massive to eliminate zonal oscillations, even in cases where the center is located within the oscillation range of the orbiting superheavy particles. In such a case, we can only rely on . Therefore, the mass of the dominant SHP may be larger than the mass calculated in this section.

5 According to this model, the mantle lies on a downward slope of the potential beyond at. Therefore, the inner part of the mantle is almost liquid, whereas the outer mantle becomes increasingly solid.

6 Note that the ionization can be initiated not only by external radiation and a thermal process, but also by gravitational (UG) ionization. In either case, the ions and the electrons which are within their oscillation range with the SHPs, gravitated toward a potential energy minimum.

7 In the present case, positive charges refer to ions and protons, and negative charges refer to electrons.

8 The ionization and the strong magnetic fields created by the coronal SHPs may also play some role in determining the morphology of the coronal loops.

©2018 Gil Raviv

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