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Calculated Vs. Observed

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Hourglass Nebula MyCn

Figure 4-4d: Demonstrates a calculated hourglass morphology generated by two stationary single-particle SHP groups of SHP mass , where the SHP velocity , the distance between the SHP groups and their common center of mass , and the overall mass of ordinary matter . The calculated pattern bears a significant resemblance to the center of the Hourglass nebula MyCn 18displayed in figure 4-4e.

Figure 4-4e: The Hourglass Nebula, MyCn 18. Image credit: R. Sahai and J. Trauger, Photo AURA/STScl/NASA/JPL (NASA photo # STScl-PRC96-07); http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap020615.html.

Andromeda M32 Galaxy Center

Figure 4-7e: Provides the tilted version of the calculated image of the center of the Andromeda galaxy. Note the ansae and two spiral arms displayed at the central bulge and the similarities between the calculated image in figure 4-7e and the observed center of Andromeda in figure 4-7f.

Figure 4-7f: A view of the center of figure 4-7c.

NGC-4622 Galaxy

Figures 4-8h and 4-8i: Comparison of the calculated galaxy to NGC-4622 using , , , , , ,, and . Credit for Figure 4-8i:G. Byrd, R. Buta, (Univ.Alabama, Tuscaloosa), T. Freeman (Bevill State College), NASA; http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap040221.html.

NGC 488 Galaxy

Figures 4-9a and 4-9b: Comparison between a tilted view of the calculated galaxy and NGC 488, using the same parameters , , , , , , and an increased speed of . The rotational direction of the SHP groups was reversed to clockwise.24

Figure 4-9b: NGC 488, image credit: Johan Knapen and Nik Szymanek, Isaac Newton group of telescopes. http://www.ing.iac.es/PR/science/ngc488.html.

The Red Square and Red Rectangle

Figure 4-11a: Provides a high resolution image of the same galaxy modeled in figure 4-8h, using , , , , , and. The display is zoomed to about around one of the SHP groups. The circled areas bear a striking resemblance to MCW 922, the Red Square Nebula, and to the Red Rectangle shown in figures 4-11b and 4-11c respectively (note that aside from the two circled patterns, there are few more similar unmarked patterns). Note that for the purpose of clarity, the color scheme is reversed, where the darker color values indicate lower potential energy.

Figure 4-11b:MWC 922: The Red Square Nebula credit(Tuthill & Lloyd, 2007); http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap070416.html.

Figure 4-11c: The Red Rectangle, Image credit: H. Van Winckel (KULeuven), M. Cohen (UC Berkely), H. Bond (STScI), T. Gull (GSFC), ESA, NASA; http://www.nasaimages.org/luna/servlet/detail/NVA2~4~4~5326~105852: Rungs-of-the-Red-Rectangle.

Cartwheel Galaxy ESO 350-40; Supernova 1987A morphologies

Figure 4-12a: UG calculated image

Figure 4-12b: Observed Cartwheel Galaxy ESO 350-40, image credit: NASA, ESA, and K. Borne (STScI)http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/pr2007017d.

Figure 4-13: Supernova 1987A, image credit: NASA, ESA, P. Challis and R. Krishner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center of Astrophysics); http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image feature 773.html.

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